Our vision is to rejuvenate modern electronics by developing and enabling a new approach to electronic systems where reconfigurability, scalability, operational flexibility/resilience, power efficiency and cost-effectiveness are combined. This vision will be delivered by breaking out of the large, but comprehensively explored realm of CMOS technology upon which virtually all modern electronics are based; consumer and non-consumer alike.

Introducing novel nanoelectronic components never before used in the technology we all carry around in our phones will introduce new capabilities that have thus far been unattainable due to the limitations of current hardware technology. The resulting improved capability of engineers to squeeze more computational power in ever smaller areas at ever lower power costs will unlock possibilities such as: a) truly pervasive Internet-of-Things computing where minute sensors consuming nearly zero power monitor the world around us and inform our choices, b) truly smart implants that within extremely limited power and size budgets can not only interface with the brain, but also process that data in a meaningful way and send the results either onwards to e.g. a doctor, or even feed it back into the brain for further processing, c) radiation-resistant electronics to be deployed in satellites and aeroplanes, civilian and military and improve communication reliability while driving down maintenance costs.

In building this vision, our project will deliver a series of scientific and commercial objectives: i) Developing the foundations of nanoelectronic component (memristive) technologies to the point where it becomes a commercially available option for the general industrial designer. ii) Setting up a fully supported (models, tools, design rules etc.), end-to-end design infrastructure so that anyone with access to industry standard software used for electronics design today may utilise memristive technology in their design. iii) Introduce a new design paradigm where memristive technologies are intimately integrated with traditional analogue and digital circuitry in order to deliver performance unattainable by any in isolation. This includes designing primitive hardware modules that can act as building-blocks for higher level designs, allowing engineers to construct large-scale systems without worrying about the intricate details of memristor operation. iv) Actively foster a community of users, encouraged to explore potential commercial impact and further scientific development stemming from our work whilst feeding back into the project through e.g. collaborations. v) Start early by beginning to commercialise the most mature aspects of the proposed research as soon as possible in order to create jobs in the UK. 

Our team (academic and industry) is ideally placed for delivering this disruptive vision that will allow our society to efficiently expand the operational envelope of electronics, enabling its use in formidable environments as well as reuse or re-purpose electronics affordably.

Research Papers
Seamlessly fused digital-analogue reconfigurable computing using memristors - Nature Communications volume 9, Article number: 2170 (2018)
Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat & Themistoklis Prodromakis
As the world enters the age of ubiquitous computing, the need for reconfigurable hardware operating close to the fundamental limits of energy consumption becomes increasingly pressing. Simultaneously, scaling-driven performance improvements within the framework of traditional analogue and digital design become progressively more restricted by fundamental physical constraints. Emerging nanoelectronics technologies bring forth new prospects yet a significant rethink of electronics design is required for realising their full potential. Here we lay the foundations of a design approach that fuses analogue and digital thinking by combining digital electronics with analogue memristive devices for achieving charge-based computation; information processing where every dissipated charge counts. This is realised by introducing memristive devices into standard logic gates, thus rendering them reconfigurable and capable of performing analogue computation at a power cost close to digital. The versatility and benefits of our approach are experimentally showcased through a hardware data clusterer and an analogue NAND gate.
A technology agnostic RRAM characterisation methodology protocol - Applied Physics 2018
Spyros Stathopoulos, Loukas Michalas, Ali Khiat, Alexantrou Serb and Themis Prodromakis
The emergence of memristor technologies brings new prospects for modern electronics via enabling novel in-memory computing solutions and affordable and scalable reconfigurable hardware implementations. Several competing memristor technologies have been presented with each bearing distinct performance metrics across multi-bit memory capacity, low-power operation, endurance, retention and stability. Application needs however are constantly driving the push towards higher performance, which necessitates the introduction of standard characterisation protocols for fair benchmarking. At the same time, opportunities for innovation are missed by focusing on excessively narrow performance aspects. To that end our work presents a complete, technology agnostic, characterisation methodology based on established techniques that are adapted to memristors/RRAM characterisation needs. Our approach is designed to extract information on all aspects of device behaviour, ranging from deciphering underlying physical mechanisms to benchmarking across a variety of electrical performance metrics that can in turn support the generation of device models
Electrical characteristics of interfacial barriers at metal—TiO2 contacts - Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 51, Number 42
Loukas Michalas, Ali Khiat, Spyros Stathopoulos and Themis Prodromakis
The electrical properties of thin TiO2 films have recently been extensively exploited with the aim of enabling a variety of metal-oxide electron devices: unipolar and bipolar semiconductor devices and/or memristors. In these efforts, investigations into the role of TiO2 as active material were the main focus; however, electrode materials are equally important. In this work we address this point by presenting a systematic quantitative electrical characterization study on the interface characteristics of metal-TiO2-metal structures. Our study employs typical contact materials that are used both as top and bottom electrodes in a metal-TiO2-metal setting. This allows an investigation of the characteristics of the interfaces as well as holistically studying an electrode's influence on the opposite interface, referred to in this work as the top/bottom electrodes inter-relationship. Our methodology comprises the recording of current–voltage (I–V) characteristics from a variety of solid-state prototypes in the temperature range of 300 K –350 K, and their analysis through appropriate modelling. Clear field- and temperature-dependent signature plots were also obtained, so as to shine more light on the role of each material as top/bottom electrodes in metal-TiO2-metal configurations. Our results highlight that these are not conventional metal–semiconductor contacts, and that several parameters are involved in the formation of the interfacial barriers, such as the electrode's position (atop or below the film), the electronegativity, the interface states, and even the opposite interface electrode material. Overall, our study provides a useful database for selecting appropriate electrode materials in TiO2-based devices, offering new insights into the role of electrodes in metal-oxide electronics applications.ogical and workable to encircle one’s own banker militarily?
Conduction mechanisms at distinct resistive levels of Pt/TiO2-x/Pt memristors - Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 143503 (2018
L. Michalas, S. Stathopoulos, A. Khiat, and T. Prodromakis
Resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are considered as key enabling components for a variety of emerging applications due to their capacity to support multiple resistive states. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms that support resistive switching remains to date a topic of debate, particularly for metal-oxide technologies, and is very much needed for optimizing their performance. This work aims to identify the dominant conduction mechanisms during switching operation of Pt/TiO2-x/Pt stacks, which is without a doubt one of the most celebrated ones. A number of identical devices were accordingly electroformed for acquiring distinct resistive levels through a pulsing-based and compliance-free protocol. For each obtained level, the switching current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were recorded and analyzed in the temperature range of 300 K–350 K. This allowed the extraction of the corresponding signature plots revealing the dominant transport mechanism for each of the I-V branches. Gradual (analogue) switching was obtained for all cases, and two major regimes were identified. For the higher resistance regime, the transport at both the high and low resistive states was found to be interface controlled due to Schottky emission. As the resistance of devices reduces to lower levels, the dominant conduction changes from an interface to the core-material controlled mechanism. This study overall supports that engineering the metal-oxide/metal electrode interface can lead to tailored barrier modifications for controlling the switching characteristics of TiO2 RRAM.
Challenges hindering memristive neuromorphic hardware from going mainstream. - Nature Communications volume 9, Article number: 5267 (2018)
Gina C. Adam, Ali Khiat & Themis Prodromakis
Memristive devices have elicited intense research in the past decade thanks to their inherent low voltage operation, multi-bit storage and cost-effective manufacturability. Nonetheless, several outstanding performance and manufacturability challenges have prevented the widespread industry adoption of redox-based memristive matrices. Here, we discuss these challenges in terms of key metrics and propose a roadmap towards realizing competitive memristive-based neuromorphic processing systems.
Spike sorting using non-volatile metal-oxide memristors - Faraday discussions 213 511-520
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Maria Trapatselia and Themistoklis Prodromakisa
efficient computation paradigms for handling neural data in situ; in particular the computationally heavy task of events classification. Here, we demonstrate how the intrinsic analogue programmability of memristive devices can be exploited to perform spike-sorting on single devices. Leveraging the physical properties of nanoscale memristors allows us to demonstrate that these devices can capture enough information in neural signal for performing spike detection (shown previously) and spike sorting at no additional power cost.
An Analogue-Domain, Switch-Capacitor-Based Arithmetic-Logic Unit - 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)
Alexander Serb and Themis Prodromakis
The continuous maturation of novel nanoelectronic devices exhibiting finely tuneable resistive switching is rekindling interest in analogue-domain computation. Regardless of domain, a useful computational module is the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU), which is capable of performing one or more fundamental mathematical operations (typical example: addition and subtraction). In this work we report on a design for an analogue ALU (aALU) capable of performing barrel addition and subtraction (i.e. ADD/SUB in modular arithmetic). The circuit only requires 5 minimum-size transistors and 1 capacitor. We show that our aALU is in principle capable of handling 5 bits of information using a single input/output wire. Core power dissipation per operation is estimated to peak at ≈ 59 f J (input operand-dependent) in TSMC's 65 nm technology.
A 68μW 31kS/s Fully-Capacitive Noise-Shaping SAR ADC with 102 dB SNDR - 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)
Lieuwe B. Leene ; Shiva Letchumanan ; Timothy G. Constandinou
This paper presents a 17 bit analogue-to-digital converter that incorporates mismatch and quantisation noise-shaping techniques into an energy-saving 10 bit successive approximation quantiser to increase the dynamic range by another 42 dB. We propose a novel fully-capacitive topology which allows for high-speed asynchronous conversion together with a background calibration scheme to reduce the oversampling requirement by 10× compared to prior-art. A 0.18μm CMOS technology is used to demonstrate preliminary simulation results together with analytic measures that optimise parameter and topology selection. The proposed system is able to achieve a FoM S of 183 dB for a maximum signal bandwidth of 15.6 kHz while dissipating 68 μW from a 1.8 V supply. A peak SNDR of 102 dB is demonstrated for this rate with a 0.201 mm 2 area requirement.
An electrical characterisation methodology for identifying the switching mechanism in TiO2 memristive stacks - Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 8168 (2019)
L. Michalas, S. Stathopoulos, A. Khiat & T. Prodromakis
Resistive random access memories (RRAMs) can be programmed to discrete resistive levels on demand via voltage pulses with appropriate amplitude and widths. This tuneability enables the design of various emerging concepts, to name a few: neuromorphic applications and reconfigurable circuits. Despite the wide interest in RRAM technologies there is still room for improvement and the key lies with understanding better the underpinning mechanism responsible for resistive switching. This work presents a methodology that aids such efforts, by revealing the nature of the resistive switching through assessing the transport properties in the non-switching operation regimes, before and after switching occurs. Variation in the transport properties obtained by analysing the current-voltage characteristics at distinct temperatures provides experimental evidence for understanding the nature of the responsible mechanism. This study is performed on prototyped device stacks that possess common Au bottom electrodes, identical TiO2 active layers while employing three different top electrodes, Au, Ni and Pt. Our results support in all cases an interface controlled transport due to Schottky emission and suggest that the acquired gradual switching originates by the bias induced modification of the interfacial barrier. Throughout this study, the top electrode material was found to play a role in determining the electroforming requirements and thus indirectly the devices’ memristive characteristics whilst both the top and bottom metal/oxide interfaces are found to be modified as result of this process.
A 3rd Order Time Domain Delta Sigma Modulator with Extended-Phase Detection - 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)
Lieuwe B Leene and Timothy G. Constandinou
This paper presents a novel analogue to digital converter using an oscillator-based loop filter for high-dynamic range bio-sensing applications. This is the first third-order feedforward ΔΣ modulator that strictly uses time domain integration for quantisation noise shaping. Furthermore we propose a new asynchronous extended-phase detection technique that increases the resolution of the 4 bit phase quantiser by another 5 bits to significantly improve both dynamic range and reduce the noise-shaping requirements. Preliminary simulation results show that this type of loop-filter can virtually prevent integrator saturation and achieves a peak 88 dB SNDR for kHz signals. The proposed system has been implemented using a 180 nm CMOS technology occupying 0.102 mm 2 and consumes 13.7 μW of power to digitise the 15 kHz signal bandwidth using a 2 MHz sampling clock.
A Memristive Switching Uncertainty Model - IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (Volume: 66, Issue: 7, July 2019)
Spyros Stathopoulos ; Alexantrou Serb ; Ali Khiat ; Maciej Ogorzałek ; Themis Prodromakis
In this paper, we endeavor to evaluate and model switching noise in resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. Although noise is always present in physical systems, the sources of which can be attributed to many different effects, in this paper, we are focusing our attention on a specific type-switching noise. Using alternating pulse programming and read trains across different voltages, we acquire a large data set below and above the switching threshold and construct what we define as increment plots, ΔR versus R. Then, through a detailed statistical analysis, we quantify the localized uncertainty among consecutive points using a sliding window of up to N points accounting for any statistical artifacts that arise. By separating the data accumulated from programming and read-out and analyzing them individually, we can subtract a baseline noise floor from the overall switching uncertainty. In this way, we effectively decouple it from other noise sources that affect the device at rest. In the end, an F(R, V) surface can be extracted that closely follows the behavior of uncertainty of the device during programming. This modeled surface can be used as an approximation of the noise behavior of the device or it can be readily incorporated as an additional component to existing switching models.
An Electrical Characterisation Methodology for Bench-marking Memristive Device Technologies - Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 19412 (2019)
Spyros Stathopoulos, Loukas Michalas, Ali Khiat, Alexantrou Serb & Themis Prodromakis
The emergence of memristor technologies brings new prospects for modern electronics via enabling novel in-memory computing solutions and energy-efficient and scalable reconfigurable hardware implementations. Several competing memristor technologies have been presented with each bearing distinct performance metrics across multi-bit memory capacity, low-power operation, endurance, retention and stability. Application needs however are constantly driving the push towards higher performance, which necessitates the introduction of a standard benchmarking procedure for fair evaluation across distinct key metrics. Here we present an electrical characterisation methodology that amalgamates several testing protocols in an appropriate sequence adapted for memristors benchmarking needs, in a technology-agnostic manner. Our approach is designed to extract information on all aspects of device behaviour, ranging from deciphering underlying physical mechanisms to assessing different aspects of electrical performance and even generating data-driven device-specific models. Importantly, it relies solely on standard electrical characterisation instrumentation that is accessible in most electronics laboratories and can thus serve as an independent tool for understanding and designing new memristive device technologies.
A semi-holographic hyperdimensional representation system for hardware-friendly cognitive computing - Philosophical Transactions A - December 2019
A. Serb, I. Kobyzev, J. Wang and T. Prodromakis
One of the main, long-term objectives of artificial intelligence is the creation of thinking machines. To that end, substantial effort has been placed into designing cognitive systems; i.e. systems that can manipulate semantic-level information. A substantial part of that effort is oriented towards designing the mathematical machinery underlying cognition in a way that is very efficiently implementable in hardware. In this work, we propose a ‘semi-holographic’ representation system that can be implemented in hardware using only multiplexing and addition operations, thus avoiding the need for expensive multiplication. The resulting architecture can be readily constructed by recycling standard microprocessor elements and is capable of performing two key mathematical operations frequently used in cognition, superposition and binding, within a budget of below 6 pJ for 64-bit operands. Our proposed ‘cognitive processing unit’ is intended as just one (albeit crucial) part of much larger cognitive systems where artificial neural networks of all kinds and associative memories work in concord to give rise to intelligence.
A mixed-signal spatio-temporal signal classifier for on-sensor spike sorting - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2020, Seville, October 2020
G.Haessig, D.Garcia-Lesta, G.Lenz, R.Benosman, P.Dudek
Neuromorphic systems provide an alternative to conventional computing hardware, promising low-power operation suitable for sensory-processing and edge computing. In this paper, we present a mixed-signal processing system designed to provide on-sensor classification of signals obtained from multielectrode array neural recordings. The designed circuits implement a real-time spike sorting algorithm, and operate on signals represented by asynchronous event streams. We combine analog circuits computation primitives (temporal surface generation, distance computation, winner-take-all) to implement a spatiotemporal clustering algorithm, classifying signals acquired by
neighbouring electrodes. The prototype chip has been submitted for fabrication in a 180nm CMOS technology. The circuits are designed to fit, alongside signal conditioning and conversion circuits, in the area under the recording electrodes (below 80x80um per electrode). Circuit implementation details and simulation results are presented. The expected neural spike recognition rates of 75% in a single-layer network and 88% in a 2-layer network are comparable with a software implementation, while the system is designed to provide a low-power embedded real-time solution.
This work provides a foundation towards the design of a large scale neuromorphic processing system, to be embedded in brainmachine interfaces.
Memristor-based Reconfigurable Circuits: Challenges in Implementation, 2020 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC)
Nguyen Cong Dao and Dirk Koch
The emergence of memristor technologies has recently received much attention due to their promising features, expecting to be a key driver in the post-CMOS era. With its ultra-low power, higher density capability and non-volatile characteristics, memristor technology is considered as the best candidate to replace SRAM cells or be employed for routing in digital reconfigurable systems. Although memristor-based reconfigurable circuits can offer many advantages over the conventional CMOS designs, limitations in the utilization of memristor technologies such as electroforming or programming structures have not been thoroughly considered and discussed. This work looks into recent trends in exploiting memristor technologies in reconfigurable circuits and then discusses implementation challenges like memristor programming, reliability and operation of memristor-based memory cells for digitally reconfigurable circuits.
Monitoring PSA levels as chemical state-variables in metal-oxide memristors - Scientific Reports 2020
Ioulia Tzouvadaki, Spyros Stathopoulos, Tom Abbey, Loukas Michalas, Themis Prodromakis
Medical interventions increasingly rely on biosensors that can provide reliable quantitative information. A longstanding bottleneck in realizing this, is various non-idealities that generate offsets and variable responses across sensors. Current mitigation strategies involve the calibration of sensors, performed in software or via auxiliary compensation circuitry thus constraining real-time operation and integration efforts. Here, we show that bio-functionalized metal-oxide memristors can be utilized for directly transducing biomarker concentration levels to discrete memory states. The introduced chemical state-variable is found to be dependent on
the devices’ initial resistance, with its response to chemical stimuli being more pronounced for higher resistive states. We leverage this attribute along with memristors’ inherent state programmability for calibrating a biosensing array to render a homogeneous response across all cells. Finally, we demonstrate the application of this technology in detecting Prostate
Specific Antigen in clinically relevant levels (ng/ml), paving the way towards applications in large multi-panel assays.
A Fast, Highly Flexible and Transparent TaOx-based Environmentally Robust Memristor for Wearable and Aerospace Application. ACS Appl. Electron. Mater 2020
Rajasekaran S, Simanjuntak FM, Panda D, Chandrasekarang S, Aluguri R, Saleem A, Tseng T-Y.
Memristor devices that can operate at high speed with high density and non-volatile capabilities have great potential for the development of high data storage and robust wearable devices. However, in real-time the performance of memristors are challenged by their instability towards harsh working conditions such as high temperature, extreme humidity, photo irradiation and mechanical bending. Herein, we introduce a TaOx/AlN based flexible and transparent memristor device having stable endurance under extreme 2 mm bending (for more than 107 cycles) with ON/OFF ratio of more than 2 orders of magnitude at 25 ns rapid switching. This device performs excellent flexibility under extreme bending conditions (bending radius of 2 mm) even with intense ultraviolet radiation. A thin AlN insertion layer having low dielectric and high thermal conductivity play a crucial role in improving the switching stability and device flexibility. In particular, the devices exhibit excellent minimum switching fluctuations under UV irradiations, 105 s nonvolatility retention at high temperature (135˚C), various gas ambient and, damp heat test (humidity 95.5%, 83˚C) due to the indium metal drift during switching process and high bonding energy of Ta-O. Most importantly, direct observation of indium metal strongly anchored in TaOx switching layer during switching process is reported for the first time via transmission electron microscopy which provides clear insights on the switching phenomenon. Furthermore, results of electrical and material analyses explain that our facile device design has excellent potential for wearable and aerospace applications.
Suboxide interface induces digital-to-analog switching transformation in all Ti-based memristor devices. Appl. Phys. Lett 2020
Chang L-Y, Simanjuntak FM, Hsu C-L, Chandrasekaran S, Tseng T-Y
Oxidation of TiN is a diffusion-limited process due to the high stability of the TiN metallic state at the TiN/TiO2 junction. Hence, the TiN/TiO2/TiN device being the inability to form a suitable interfacial layer results in the exhibition of abrupt current (conductance) rise and fall during the set (potentiation) and reset (depression) processes, respectively. Interfacial engineering by depositing Ti film served as the oxygen gettering material on top of the TiO2 layer induces a spontaneous reaction to form a TiOx interfacial layer (due to the low Gibbs free energy of suboxide formation). Such an interface layer acts as an oxygen reservoir that promotes gradual oxidation and reduction during the set and reset processes. Consequently, an excellent analog behavior having a 2-bit per cell and robust epoch training can be achieved. However, a thick interfacial layer may degrade the switching behavior of the device due to the high internal resistance. This work suggests that interfacial engineering could be considered in designing high-performance analog memristor devices.
Memristor-Enabled Reconfigurable Integrated Circuits. 2020 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC)
Jakub Szypicyn, Christos Papavassiliou, Georgios Papandroulidakis, Geoff Merrett, Alex Serb, Spyros Stathopoulos, Themis Prodromakis
The holy grail of analogue integrated circuit design is adjustable analogue delay element. Of course, all analogue circuits are filters. Internal delays impose overall low-pass character to all circuits so that broadband amplifiers are lowpass filters, while high-pass amplifiers are in fact band-pass filters.
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